Which processes lead to most genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms?
A) Random fertilization
C) Crossing over
D) Independent assortment of chromosomes in meiosis
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The Correct Answer for the given Question is Option C. Crossing Over
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Those processes that lead to most genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms is called Crossing Over. The process of crossing over involves the exchange of genetic material in the germ line. Meiosis is the process by which paired chromatids from each parent align so similar DNA sequences from the paired chromosomes cross over one another. Crossing over results in a reshuffle of genetic information, which is part of the reason for variation among offspring.
During meiosis, crossing over occurs when non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material, resulting in new allelic combinations in daughter cells. Almost every chromosome of a diploid cell is duplicated, one from the maternal gamete and the other from the paternal gamete. It is called homologous chromosomes when each chromosome is derived from a single parent. Meiosis occurs as the first step in the sexual reproduction of diploid organisms. The homologous chromosomes align during prophase I of meiosis to exchange genetic material, resulting in some recombinant chromosomes that contain both maternal and paternal genes.